Base oil, also known as mineral oil, holds a special place in the lubricating oil industry. With its famous grades like SN 500, SN 150, and SN 300, base oil serves as a vital component derived from crude oil through a refining process. It is extensively used in both industrial and automotive applications, making it an essential commodity in various sectors.
Base oils can be classified based on their chemical composition and viscosity characteristics, leading to the categorization into Group I, II, III, IV, and V. Among these groups, Group I represents the least refined, while Group V signifies the most refined base oils.
Base oils can be blended with additives to enhance their lubricating properties. By adding specific additives, such as viscosity index improvers, thermal stability enhancers, and anti-wear agents, the overall performance of the oil can be improved. These additives play a crucial role in improving the viscosity index, ensuring thermal stability, and enhancing anti-wear characteristics.
Apart from its usage in lubricating oils, base oil plays a critical role in the production of grease. Grease, a semi-solid lubricant, finds application in various mechanical systems to reduce friction, protect against wear, and provide efficient lubrication. Base oil forms a significant portion of the grease formulation and serves as the matrix in which other additives are blended to create the final grease product.
Several common types of Group I base oils are widely used across industries. Let’s explore some of these base oil types:
Solvent Neutral 150 (SN 150): SN 150 is a commonly used Group I base oil. It possesses moderate viscosity characteristics and finds applications in general-purpose lubricants, industrial oils, and metalworking fluids.
Solvent Neutral 300 (SN 300): SN 300, another Group I base oil, offers improved viscosity characteristics compared to SN 150. It finds applications in slightly more demanding industrial and automotive lubrication requirements.
Solvent Neutral 500 (SN 500): SN 500 is a versatile Group I base oil with higher viscosity characteristics. It is used in a wide range of industrial applications, including lubricating oils, hydraulic fluids, and metalworking fluids.
Solvent Neutral 650 (SN 650): SN 650 represents the upper end of Group I base oils in terms of viscosity. It finds applications in more demanding industrial lubrication scenarios where higher viscosity oils are required.
Base oil SN150 is a specific type of Group I base oil that undergoes a solvent refining process. It possesses a viscosity index (VI) of approximately 90, indicating minimal viscosity changes with temperature variations. SN150 stands out with its light color, low aromaticity, and a substantial percentage of saturated hydrocarbons. It also contains compounds like sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen.
SN150 finds extensive application in various industries due to its desirable properties. It serves as a base oil for lubricating oils, hydraulic fluids, and metalworking fluids. Additionally, SN150 is used as a feedstock for producing other base oil grades, including SN500 and SN650, through further refining processes.
Furthermore, SN150 can be blended with specific additives to enhance its lubricating properties. These additives contribute to improving its viscosity index, thermal stability, and anti-wear characteristics. Consequently, SN150 becomes an excellent choice for high-performance lubricants, catering to demanding applications.
Base oil SN150 is a type of Group I base oil that is produced through a solvent refining process. It has a viscosity index (VI) of around 90, which means its viscosity changes relatively little with temperature. SN150 is a light-colored and low-aromatic oil that contains a high percentage of saturated hydrocarbons, as well as sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen compounds.
SN150 is a common base oil that is used in a variety of applications, including lubricating oils, hydraulic fluids, and metalworking fluids. It is also used as a feedstock for producing other base oil grades, such as SN500 and SN650, through further refining processes.
In addition to its use as a base oil, SN150 can also be blended with various additives to improve its lubricating properties. These additives can enhance its viscosity index, thermal stability, and anti-wear characteristics, making it more suitable for use in high-performance lubricants.
6-7.5 mm2/s (CST)
40-45 mm2/s (CST)
Density @15.6 °C
0.864 – 0.874 g/lit
The Base oil SN 300 is another type of mineral oil that is used as a lubricant. Like SN 150, SN 300 has undergone a refining process to remove impurities and contaminants, resulting in a higher quality oil. Here are some key properties and characteristics of base oil SN 300:
Viscosity: Base oil SN 300 has a higher viscosity than SN 150, which means it flows less easily. Its kinematic viscosity at 40°C is typically between 270-350 mm²/s.
Flash point: The flash point of base oil SN 300 is around 230-260°C, which means that it has a relatively high resistance to ignition and is less likely to catch fire.
Pour point: The pour point of base oil SN 300 is typically between -3 to -9°C, which means that it remains liquid at lower temperatures.
Oxidation stability: Base oil SN 300 has good oxidation stability, which means that it resists breaking down and forming harmful byproducts when exposed to heat and oxygen.
Compatibility: Base oil SN 300 is compatible with most other mineral oils and synthetic lubricants, making it a versatile option for various applications.
Meanwhile Base oil SN 300 is generally used in applications that require higher viscosity than SN 150, such as gear oils, turbine oils, and some hydraulic fluids. It offers good performance and stability in these applications and is often used in industrial equipment such as turbines, compressors, and pumps. However, its specific properties and suitability may depend on the application and the specific requirements of the equipment being used.
Bright & Clear
ASTM D 1500
2.0 – 2.5
Density @ 30 C
ASTM D 1298
0.870 – 0.880
Kinematic Viscosity @ 40C
ASTM D 445
45.0 – 65.0
Kinematic Viscosity @ 100 C
ASTM D 445
6.5 – 8.0
ASTM D 2270
89 – 92
Flash Point , C
ASTM D 92
210 – 220
Pour Point , C
ASTM D 97
Basically Base oil SN 500 is a type of mineral oil that is commonly used as a lubricant. Like SN 150 and SN 300, SN 500 has undergone a refining process to remove impurities and contaminants, resulting in a higher quality oil. Here are some key properties and characteristics of base oil SN 500:
Viscosity: Base oil SN 500 has a higher viscosity than both SN 150 and SN 300. Its kinematic viscosity at 40°C is typically between 420-500 mm²/s.
Flash point: The flash point of base oil SN 500 is around 250-280°C, which means that it has a relatively high resistance to ignition and is less likely to catch fire.
Pour point: The pour point of base oil SN 500 is typically between -3 to -6°C, which means that it remains liquid at lower temperatures.
Oxidation stability: Base oil SN 500 has good oxidation stability, which means that it resists breaking down and forming harmful byproducts when exposed to heat and oxygen.
Compatibility: Base oil SN 500 is compatible with most other mineral oils and synthetic lubricants, making it a versatile option for various applications.
In the meantime Base oil SN 500 is generally used in applications that require even higher viscosity than SN 300, such as hydraulic fluids, transformer oils, and some gear oils. It offers good performance and stability in these applications and is often used in industrial equipment such as transformers, industrial machinery, and heavy-duty engines. However, its specific properties and suitability may depend on the application and the specific requirements of the equipment being used.
C & B
C & B
Density at 15°C
Kinematic viscosity at 40°C
Kinematic viscosity at 100°C
Noack at 250°C
The Base oil SN 650 is a type of mineral oil that is commonly used as a lubricant. Like SN 150, SN 300, and SN 500, SN 650 has undergone a refining process to remove impurities and contaminants, resulting in a higher quality oil.
So Base oil SN 650 is generally used in applications that require even higher viscosity than SN 500, such as industrial lubricants, marine oils, and some heavy-duty gear oils. It offers good performance and stability in these applications and is often used in industrial equipment such as gearboxes, hydraulic systems, and large engines. However, its specific properties and suitability may depend on the application and the specific requirements of the equipment being used.
Flash Point ˚C
Total Acid Number mgKOH/g
The quality of base oil can be determined by several factors such as its viscosity index, flash point, pour point, oxidation stability, and acidity.
A measure of the oil’s resistance to change in viscosity with temperature. A high viscosity index means the oil’s viscosity changes less with temperature, indicating better quality.
The temperature at which the oil emits enough vapor to ignite in the presence of a flame. A high flash point indicates that the oil is less likely to ignite, making it safer to use.
The temperature at which the oil becomes too viscous to flow. A lower pour point indicates that the oil remains fluid at lower temperatures, making it suitable for use in colder climates.
A measure of how well the oil resists degradation when exposed to oxygen. A higher oxidation stability means the oil is less likely to break down and form sludge or deposits, extending its useful life.
Measure of the amount of acidic substances in the oil. A low acidity level indicates that the oil is less likely to corrode engine components or form harmful deposits.
Overall, a high-quality base oil should have a high viscosity index, high flash point, low pour point, high oxidation stability, and low acidity.
UAE (Dubai) is one of the biggest exporter of base oil in bulk and drum to most of Asian country and Turkey in the main exporter of base oil to African countries.These two countries has access to bulk delivery and ISO tank to ship on volume quantity.
Base oil can be packed and stored in different types of containers depending on the quantity, transportation, and storage requirements. Some common packing options for base oil include:
Drums: Base oil is often packed in steel or plastic drums of various sizes ranging from 55-gallon (208 liters) to 200-liter drums. Drums are suitable for small to medium quantities of base oil, are easy to handle, and can be stacked for storage.
Flexitanks: Flexitanks are large, flexible containers made of polyethylene that can hold up to 25,000 liters of base oil. They are ideal for bulk transportation of base oil, especially for long distances as they can be loaded in standard shipping containers.
Tank Trucks: Tank trucks are used to transport bulk quantities of base oil from the refinery to the storage facility or to the end-user. They come in various sizes and can carry up to 40,000 liters of base oil.
ISO Tanks: ISO tanks are large, stainless steel containers used for transporting and storing bulk quantities of base oil. They have a capacity of 20,000 to 26,000 liters and can be transported by rail, truck, or ship.
IBC Totes: Intermediate Bulk Containers (IBCs) are made of plastic or steel and can hold up to 1,000 liters of base oil. They are often used for small to medium quantities of base oil and are easily transportable.
When packing base oil, it’s important to consider the compatibility of the container material with the oil, the potential for contamination, and the environmental impact of disposal.
Today price of base oil on April 2023 is between 900 to 1000USD/MT.Price of base oil can vary depending on several factors such as the quality of the oil, global supply and demand, and the cost of crude oil. Base oil prices are usually quoted in dollars per metric ton or per gallon.
The market for base oil is highly competitive, and prices can fluctuate depending on supply and demand dynamics. For example, during times of high demand, such as during the summer driving season, prices may increase due to supply shortages. Conversely, during periods of oversupply, prices may decrease.
The price of crude oil, which is the primary feedstock for base oil production, can also influence base oil prices. If the price of crude oil increases, the cost of producing base oil also increases, leading to higher prices for consumers.
In addition to supply and demand factors, the quality of the base oil can also affect the price. Higher quality base oils, such as Group III and Group IV base oils, are generally more expensive than lower quality base oils.
Recycled base oil, also known as re-refined base oil, is a type of lubricant oil that is produced by processing used or waste lubricating oil through a series of refining and reprocessing steps to remove impurities and restore its performance characteristics. Base oil is a key component in the production of lubricants, which are used in various applications such as automotive engines, industrial machinery, and other mechanical equipment to reduce friction, wear, and heat generation.
There are several key differences between virgin base oil and recycled base oil, including:
Source: Virgin is produced from crude oil through a refining process, while recycled is obtained from used oil that has been collected, processed, and refined to remove impurities and contaminants.
Processing: Virgin undergoes a complex refining process that involves multiple stages, including distillation, solvent extraction, and/or hydrotreating, to obtain the desired properties and performance characteristics. On the other hand, recycled goes through a re-refining or recycling process, which typically involves removal of impurities, contaminants, and used additives from the used oil to restore its quality and performance.
Quality: Virgin is typically produced from high-quality crude oil and is designed to meet specific industry standards and specifications for performance characteristics, such as viscosity, oxidation stability, and low temperature properties. Recycled , on the other hand, may vary in quality depending on the source of the used oil, the recycling process used, and the adherence to relevant industry standards or regulations.
Environmental Impact: Recycling can have environmental benefits, as it helps to reduce the amount of used oil that would otherwise be disposed of or burned, minimizing the environmental impact of used oil waste. Additionally, re-refining or recycling used oil can help conserve natural resources, such as crude oil, which is a finite resource. Virgin production, on the other hand, requires extraction and processing of crude oil, which can have environmental impacts such as habitat destruction, carbon emissions, and other environmental pollution.
Cost: Recycled is generally less expensive compared to virgin base oil, as it is obtained from used oil and undergoes a re-refining or recycling process, which can be more cost-effective than the production of virgin from crude oil.
Application: Virgin is typically used in a wide range of applications, including automotive lubricants, industrial lubricants, hydraulic fluids, metalworking fluids, and other specialty applications. Recycled may be suitable for less demanding applications where lower performance requirements are acceptable, such as industrial gear oils, hydraulic fluids, and other lubricant applications that do not require high-performance characteristics.
We are exporting in recondition, cleaned and washed also painted steel drum in customer favor color.
The process of recycling base oil involves several steps, such as pre-treatment to remove water, solids, and other impurities, followed by distillation to separate the base oil from other components. The base oil is then further treated with various refining techniques, such as hydrofinishing, solvent extraction, and dewaxing, to remove contaminants and restore its performance characteristics. Once the re-refined base oil meets the required specifications, it can be blended with additives to produce finished lubricants that are suitable for use in various applications.
It’s important to note that the quality of recycled base oil can vary depending on the recycling process and the source of the used oil. Therefore, it’s crucial to ensure that recycled base oil used in lubricant production meets industry standards and specifications to ensure proper performance and protection for the intended application.
Recycling base oil SN500 through an acid-based process is one of the methods used in the re-refining of used lubricating oil. This process typically involves several steps, including acid treatment, separation, and purification, to remove impurities and contaminants from the used oil and produce recycled base oil SN500 that can be used as a raw material in the production of new lubricants or other applications. Here’s a general overview of the acid-based recycling process for base oil:
Acid Treatment: The used lubricating oil is heated and mixed with a strong acid, such as sulfuric acid, which helps to separate and remove contaminants, such as dirt, sludge, and heavy metals, from the oil. The acid reacts with these impurities, forming insoluble compounds that can be separated from the oil.
Separation: After the acid treatment, the mixture of oil and acid is allowed to settle, allowing the impurities to separate as sludge or sediment at the bottom of the container. The clean oil is then separated from the sludge, typically through a centrifugation or filtration process.
Purification: The separated oil is further processed to remove residual acid, as well as other impurities that may still be present. This may involve washing the oil with water or a neutralizing agent to remove any remaining acid, followed by additional purification steps, such as vacuum distillation, clay treatment, or filtration, to further refine the recycled base oil.
Quality Testing: The recycled oil is then tested for its properties, such as viscosity, flash point, and other performance characteristics, to ensure that it meets the required specifications for its intended use.
Additive Blending: Depending on the intended application, the recycled base may be blended with additives, such as detergents, antioxidants, and anti-wear agents, to enhance its performance and meet specific lubricant requirements.
Recycling base oil SN150 is through an alkali refining process, also known as base oil re-refining. This process involves treating used base oil with alkali substances, such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or potassium hydroxide (KOH), to remove impurities and contaminants, and to neutralize acidic components that may have accumulated during the oil’s use.
The alkali refining process typically involves the following steps:
Pre-treatment: The used base oil SN 150 is first pre-treated to remove any solid particles, water, and other impurities. This may involve processes such as filtration, sedimentation, or centrifugation.
Alkali treatment: The pre-treated base oil is then mixed with alkali substances, such as NaOH or KOH, and heated to a specific temperature. The alkali reacts with acidic components in the oil, forming soap-like compounds that can be separated from the oil.
Separation: The oil is then allowed to settle, and the soap-like compounds, along with other impurities, form a sludge that can be separated from the oil. This may involve processes such as centrifugation or settling in a decanter.
Neutralization: The separated oil is then further treated with an acid to neutralize any remaining alkali residues.
Distillation: The neutralized oil is then subjected to a distillation process to remove any remaining impurities and contaminants. This may involve vacuum distillation or other types of distillation methods.
Additional treatment: Depending on the desired quality of the recycled base oil, additional treatment steps may be carried out, such as dewaxing, hydrogenation, or hydrotreating, to further improve its properties.
Final product: The resulting recycled base oil can be blended with additives to produce finished lubricant products or used as a base stock for new lubricant formulations.
The general process of recycling base oil SN 300 using bentonite typically involves the following steps:
Pre-treatment: The used base oil SN 300 is first pre-treated to remove any solid particles, water, and other impurities through processes such as filtration, sedimentation, or centrifugation.
Bentonite treatment: The pre-treated base oil is then mixed with bentonite clay and agitated to allow the bentonite particles to adsorb impurities and contaminants from the oil. The bentonite particles act like a sponge, trapping and removing various substances, such as sludge, oxidation products, and other impurities.
Separation: The oil and bentonite mixture is then allowed to settle or passed through a filtration system to separate the bentonite particles, which have adsorbed the impurities, from the oil. This may involve processes such as centrifugation or filtration.
Further treatment: Depending on the desired quality of the recycled base oil, additional treatment steps may be carried out, such as neutralization, distillation, or other purification methods, to further improve its properties.
Final product: The resulting recycled base oil, which has been purified using bentonite, can be blended with additives to produce finished lubricant products or used as a base stock for new lubricant formulations.
Recycling base oil has several benefits, including environmental and economic advantages. By re-refining used lubricating oil, it helps reduce the environmental impact of waste oil disposal, as improperly disposed used oil can contaminate soil and water sources. Recycling base oil also conserves natural resources, as it reduces the need for virgin base oil, which is typically extracted from crude oil through an energy-intensive process. Additionally, using recycled base oil in lubricant production can be more cost-effective compared to using virgin base oil, as it typically requires less energy and resources to process.
Recycled base oil is typically less expensive compared to virgin base oil, as it is obtained from used oil and undergoes a re-refining or recycling process, which can be more cost-effective than the production of virgin base oil from crude oil. However, the price of recycled base oil may still vary depending on the specific grade, quality, and performance characteristics of the recycled base oil.
In general, the price of recycled base oil may be influenced by factors such as the cost of collecting and processing used oil, the level of impurities and contaminants removed during the recycling process, the level of processing and refinement required to meet industry standards or specifications, and the market demand and supply dynamics for recycled base oil.
Generally price of recycled based oil normally 20% less than virgin base oil.
Some of the countries that have been major importers of recycled base oil in the past include: